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Emergency Claims Contact Numbers

Below is a list of our commonly asked for claims contact numbers for all of our contracted insurers. Many of our insurers are able to handle a claim 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

We often recommend that you contact your broker prior to calling your insurer as your broker can guide you through the claims process.

Collision Reporting Centres

Drivers in Ontario who are involved in collisions must report their collision within twenty four hours to a Collision Reporting Center. Here a police officer will inspect your vehicle for damage. The drivers involved then complete a simplified government collision report form which is reviewed by a police officer.

Any driver involved in a collision where damage to each vehicle or property is more than $1,000 may report the collision to a Collision Reporting Center. However, there are some exceptions as to when you should have police immediately visit the scene of an accident.

Below are the list of exceptions as to when you should have police immediately visit the scene of a collision instead of visiting a Collision Reporting Center. Exceptions to using a Collision Reporting Center:

Find a Collision Reporting Center

After an Accident

You should prepare yourself before visiting a Collision Reporting Center by collecting any applicable information. Immediately after a collision try and take the following steps:

Reporting an Insurance Claim

You can report a claim 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, by calling our toll-free number at 1 (855) 482-5001.

When you call, one of our customer service professionals will talk to you about your loss and guide you through the claims process.

The sooner you call, the sooner we can help. Please have as much information as you can available when you call so we can assist you better.

What information do I need?

Depending on the type of claim you are reporting, different information will be needed. Typically, the kind of information we will ask for includes:

What if I don’t have all of the information?

You should report your claim to My Insurance Broker as soon as possible, even if you don’t have all the necessary information. The faster you report your claim to us, the sooner we can start guiding you through the claims process.

How long will it take to settle?

Auto Claim: What steps should I take?

When filing an insurance claim for auto take into account the following:

Property Claim: What steps should I take?

When filing an insurance claim for property take into account the following:

My Insurance Forms

Below are some useful forms that our clients may require when issuing a new policy or changing payment details. We recommend that when dealing with sensitive information like credit card or account information that proper care is taken to shred these documents once you have confirmed they have been received by your broker.

Adobe Acrobat may be required to view some of the files. Please click on the above icon to download this program for free.

Accident Benefits Checklist

The Accident Benefits Checklist is used to review the accident benefits coverage on your auto policy. Please consult with your broker. More information regarding your options can be found within our Web Site or from the Insurance Bureau of Canada.

Client Consent Form

The Client consent Form is intended to acknowledge the collection, dissemination, and retention of information about the client by the broker during a policy renewal. Additionally, the form may be used to request:

Credit Card Authorization Form Dominion

Credit Card Authorization Form Intact

The above Credit Card Forms are used to authorize credit card payments for your policy. Please ensure that after sending this information to your insurer or broker that appropriate documents are shredded to prevent against identity theft.

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form Aviva Canada

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form Intact Insurance

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form CSIO

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form Dominion of Canada

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form Economical Mutual

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form Gore Mutual

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form Jevco

Pre-Authorized Chequing (PAC) Form Nordic

Glossary of Insurance Terms

We have compiled a glossary of some of the most commonly used insurance terms to help you understand your policy. If you have any questions regarding one of these terms feel free to contact one of our knowledgeable brokers. Some definitions have been provided courtesy of the Insurance Bureau of Canada and Insurance Institute of Canada.

Absolute Liability

The liability of a wrongdoer’s automobile insurance company to pay someone harmed by the wrongdoer, even if the wrongdoer has violated the terms of the insurance policy, for example, by driving with an expired license. This is subject to a limit, usually $200,000, and the requirement that the wrongdoer in violation of the contract must reimburse the insurer.


An event that happens by chance and is not expected in the normal course of events, which results in harm to people, damage to property or equipment, or a loss of process or productivity.

Accident Benefits

The portion of auto insurance that provides medical care and income replacement benefits to insured persons injured in a car collision, regardless of who caused the accident. A detailed explanation of these benefits can be found in the Ontario Auto Policy.

Actual Cash Value

The fair market value of property taking into account factors that might augment or reduce the value of the property in question.


A certified professional who specializes in mathematics of insurance and evaluates statistical information to determine rates and risks.


An adjuster reviews and settles claims on behalf of the insurance company. The adjuster could be an employee of the insurance company or an independent contractor hired by the company.

All-Risk or All-Perils Policy

See Comprehensive Insurance

As Their Interest May Appear (ATIMA)

A phrase commonly used in the loss payable section of an insurance policy where the insurable interest in a property is either unknown or presently unascertainable, e.g., “Loss payable to A and B as their interest may appear.” This leaves the whole question of title to the insurance monies to be settled between the insured and the person whose name appears in the loss payable portion of the policy.

Assigner or Assignor

One who transfers, designates or assigns property to another.

Assumption of Risk

The legal doctrine of assumption of risk, also known as “volenti non fit injuria,” where a person knows of the facts and existence of a dangerous condition and voluntarily exposes himself to it.

The accepting of a risk by an insurance company.

Avoidance of Risk

Taking steps to remove a hazard, engage in an alternative activity, or otherwise end a specific exposure.

Bad Faith

Design to deceive or mislead another.
Conscious wrongdoing.
Constructive fraud.


In contract and property law one to whom goods or property are entrusted for a stated purpose. Can be either gratuitous (for no consideration) or for hire (for consideration).


A person entrusting goods to another.


Physical improvements beyond mere maintenance or repairs that augment the value of a property.


A temporary or preliminary agreement that provides coverage until a policy can be delivered.

Bodily Injury

A term, mostly used in automobile insurance, meaning physical injury as a result of a car collision.

Business Insurance

Insurance purchased by businesses, also called “commercial insurance”. This includes several types: property, boiler and machinery, liability (professional liability, product liability, directors and officers liability), commercial auto, business interruption, etc.

Business Interruption Insurance

Various types of insurance against business expenses and loss of income resulting from a fire or other insured peril.

By-Law Endorsement

An endorsement explaining how a particular insurance company deals with a claim which is affected by a local by-law.

Canadian Loss Experience Automobile Rating (CLEAR)

CLEAR is the Canadian Loss Experience Automobile Rating. This is a method for classifying different models of cars for insurance purposes by using historical claims data, including Collision, Comprehensive, Direct Compensation – Property Damage, and Accident Benefits coverages. CLEAR is used by many insurance companies across the country.

Certificate of Insurance

Written document stating that insurance is in effect. Includes general statement of policy’s coverage.

Civil Liability

An individual’s liability to others for harm caused to them by his or her actions.


The exercising of a policyholder’s right under a policy to be paid by his or her insurance company for certain financial losses suffered. A claim can be any notification of a possible loss under an insurance policy, whether or not any payment follows. For every claim that is reported, the insurance company must set aside money (“reserves”) sufficient to cover its anticipated cost.

Co-Insurance Clause

A clause in an insurance policy requiring an insured to carry a certain percentage, usually 80, 90 or 100 per cent of insurance in relation to the value of the property insured. If the insured fails to do this, then he agrees to be a self insurer of all losses large or small in the same ratio as his failure to comply with the percentage required, is related to the insurance required. For example, a building valued at $100,000 with an 80 per cent co insurance clause would require insurance coverage of $80,000. If coverage is carried for only $40,000 then the insured is a self insurer or co insurer for $40,000 of the $80,000, and the insurance company would be responsible for the same amount. This ratio would apply even if a loss were only $5,000. Then the insurance company would pay $2,500 and the balance or co insurance penalty of $2,500 would be borne by the insured.


A vehicle or a ship collides when it strikes another object or another vehicle or ship. Collision insurance insures against loss so caused.

Collision Coverage

An optional type of automobile insurance coverage that pays for the cost of repairing the insured vehicle if it is damaged in a collision or upset.

Commercial General Liability (CGL)

A standard form of liability insurance developed for use in the business sector. It is usually contained in a broader mercantile policy also covering property loss and business interruption.

Comprehensive General Liability Policy

A policy particularly suited to a manufacturer, contractor or large wholesaler or retailer providing broad coverage for claims made against him for bodily injury or damage to property of others for which he may become liable and which arise out of his entire business operation.

Comprehensive Personal Liability

A form of liability insurance for individuals which insures the policyholder in the event he has become liable to pay money for damage or injury he has caused to others. This form does not include automobile liability, but does cover almost every activity of the policyholder except those which arise from the operations of a business. Hence “Personal” Liability.

Consequential Loss

The word “consequential” means something following as an effect or result. It is an indirect result of the occurrence that causes the loss. The difference between a direct loss and a consequential loss can be seen in the destruction of a power station by wind. The damage to the power station is a direct loss by wind. There is actual physical damage directly resulting. The destruction of the power station also interrupts the generation of power by the station. For example, a cold storage plant is without electrical power. Foodstuffs spoil as a result or as a consequence. This is a consequential loss, not a direct loss.

Death Benefit

An amount set out in the policy representing the amount that will be paid in the event of death. Also referred to as “principal sum.”

Debris Removal

A provision in an insurance policy most commonly found in fire insurance providing indemnification for the cost of removal of the debris after a fire.


Statement, signed by the insured, warranting that information given by him is true.

Declarations Page

The portion of the insurance contract that contains information such as the name and address of the insured, the property insured and its location and description, the policy period, the amount of insurance coverage, applicable premiums, and any other information provided by the insured.


An agreed specified sum to be deducted from the amount of loss and assumed by the insured.


Reduction in value of property through use, ageing, deterioration and obsolescence.

Direct Writer

Insurance company selling direct to the public and not through independent agents or brokers.

Directors’ and Officers Liability’ Insurance (D&O)

Insurance that provides coverage for members of boards of directors against “wrongful acts,” which might include actual or alleged errors, omissions, misleading statements, and neglect or breach of duty on the part of the board of directors.

Duty of Care

The obligation that a person has to exercise reasonable care with respect to the interests of others, including protecting them from harm.


The living quarters occupied, or intended for occupancy, by a household.

Dwelling Coverage

This applies to your home and “attached structures” such as a garage or carport. Permanently installed outdoor equipment on the premises, such as a swimming pool and the equipment attached to it, is usually included. Building materials for use in construction, alteration or repair of the insured dwelling or related structures on the premises are usually covered, too, if they are on the site or adjacent to it. Theft and vandalism losses during construction are usually not covered.

Earned Premium

1) That portion of premium earned or charged for the period of time a policy remained effective. For example, an annual policy paid for in advance would be one twelfth “earned” at the end of the first full month of its term.
2) An amount calculated by taking earned premium reserve at beginning of period plus premium written during period, less unearned premium reserve at end of period.
3) Premium actually exposed to loss.

Employer’s Liability Insurance

Protects an employer against injuries sustained by employees that fall under common-law liability. This should not be confused with workers’ compensation liability, which is liability as defined by workers’ compensation law.


An amendment added to a written document, particularly an agreement between parties, altering its provisions.

Errors and Omissions Insurance

Insurance covering the legal liability of professionals not usually involved with the care of the human body such as architects, engineers, accountants.

A type of insurance which will step in to take the place of insurance that has not been effected due to a mistake or forgetfulness on the part of the policyholder. Issued to risks such as mortgage concerns, professionals, semi professionals or others engaged in the routine insurance of many properties.

A clause in certain policies whereby the insurer agrees to waive its defenses when an honest error has been committed, provided it is corrected when discovered. See also Malpractice Insurance and Professional Liability Insurance.


In law, one of the various interests in land.The net worth of an individual’s worldly goods.

Estimated Premium

A tentative premium set in the anticipation of being approximately correct but which may be increased or decreased when the final premium calculation is made.


Differences listed in a policy which amend the standard declarations so as to provide the required coverage.

Excess Insurance

Insurance which does not participate until all other similar insurance on the same subject is exhausted, or until the loss exceeds a previously agreed upon amount. Where there are two policies on a risk and both contain a provision that they are “excess to all other insurance,” the problem is resolved by the general “guiding principles.” This is usually interpreted so that each insurer contributes pro rata to the loss.


Risks, perils or properties defined in the policy as not covered.


A pooling agreement between all automobile insurers (now replaced in most provinces by the Facility Association) in which a market is guaranteed for all licensed drivers and registered owners. The results of the total industry pool are shared by all members of the agreement.

Facility Association

The organization that ensures that anyone who is required to have car insurance has access to it. For more information about the important role of Facility Association in the insurance market please visit its website.

Fault Determination Rules

In Quebec, New Brunswick and Ontario, charts or rules are used to determine fault or responsibility for Direct Compensation – Property Damage claims, but not for injury claims in cases of car collisions. In some other jurisdictions, insurers use inter-company “settlement” charts for handling claims against each other; these are not legally binding on the policyholder, however. The circumstances of a collision may show that more than one driver was negligent. Each driver’s insurance company may then become involved in the settlement based on the degree of responsibility attributed to each person. If there is a dispute about responsibility, court action may be required to resolve it.

First Party

The person who is insured on the insurance policy. He or she is also the “policyholder” or “insured.” There may be other people, named or unnamed, who are covered as well.


Anything that is attached to real property is known as a “fixture.” Fixtures when permanently attached to real property become part of the real property. Tenant’s fixtures are fixtures of a removable nature and are the responsibility of the tenant for insurance purposes. Whether a fixture is a tenant’s fixture and movable or a landlord’s fixture and immovable is frequently determined by the purpose of the fixture. A more accurate guide is generally found, however, in the lease itself or in an agreement between the landlord and tenant at the time of installation of the fixture. The tenant may have an insurable interest in permanent fixtures particularly where the lease has some time to run during which the tenant would have the use of these fixtures.

Fixtures & Fittings

Parts or furnishings of a building, considered as permanent attachments as opposed to movable items such as stock, office furniture, etc.

Flat Cancellation

The cancellation of a policy as of the effective date with all paid premium refunded.

Fortuitous Event

An unforeseen accident – i.e., an event neither deliberately caused by the insured nor bound to happen in the ordinary course of events.


Methods used to deceive to cause unwarranted favourable decision for one’s own benefit.

Deliberate misrepresentation or misstatement.

Concealment of facts which should at the time be made known.


Dishonest; based on or obtained by fraud.

Fraudulent Misrepresentation

A false statement made knowing it to be false and intending another to act on it to his detriment, or made carelessly or recklessly without regard to whether it is true or false. In insurance it is most frequently found in the intentional misrepresentation of a risk to obtain insurance or in proof of loss after the loss occurs.

General Damages

It is applied in a third party injury claim. Damages awarded by a Court of law for pain and suffering of an individual.

Graduated Driver’s Licensing

A staged introduction of new drivers into the driving environment. Under graduated driver’s licensing systems, new drivers earn more driving privileges as they gain more experience and demonstrate that they are able to handle increased risk.

Gross Negligence

The degree of negligence somewhat greater than ordinary negligence. It may be a reckless wanton and wilful misconduct causing bodily injury and/or property damage.

Guaranteed Building Replacement Cost (GBRC)

Coverage that pays for replacement without reduction for depreciation (see also Actual cash value and Depreciation). A guaranteed replacement cost endorsement covers any shortfall in the event that the replacement cost of a building has been underestimated.

Hard Market

The part of the insurance cycle in which premiums rise significantly. It is usually associated with a sharp decline in capacity. (See also Soft market).


A risk or probability that the event insured against might occur. Condition which engenders or increases the chances of a loss.

Hazard, Moral

Hazard arising from character, interest, habits and lack of integrity of the insured or person concerned.

Hazard, Physical

Hazard arising from physical condition or characteristics of the object that is insured, e.g., using and storing volatile materials and substances on the premises.

Highway Traffic Act

The body or system of laws which govern the obligations of the provincial governments and users of roads. A breach or conviction of any of these laws may be an offence but does not of itself impose legal liability, but it may be relied upon in any proceeding to establish or negate any liability.

Hit and Run Accident

Collision between motor vehicle and/or a motor vehicle and another object and/or a motor vehicle and a pedestrian where a driver leaves the scene of the accident without identifying him/herself. This is an offence under the Highway Traffic Act.

Hold Harmless Agreement

A contract or agreement in which one party assumes legal responsibility for the acts of another.

Homeowners Insurance

An elective combination of coverage's for the risks of owning a home. It may include coverage for fire, burglary, vandalism, earthquake and other perils.

Hostile Fire

A fire which occurs in or escapes to a place not anticipated, e.g., a fire in a fireplace becomes uncontrollable and ignites something externally. See Friendly Fire.


See Insurance Brokers Association of Canada.


See Insurance Bureau of Canada.


The date and time on which coverage under an insurance policy takes effect.


An event which, under different circumstances, could have resulted in harm to people, damage to property or equipment, or loss of process or productivity – for example, almost hitting a pedestrian with a car, or a slip and fall that does not result in an injury. Sometimes an incident is referred to as a “near miss."


To compensate the insured person for a loss, in whole or in part, by payment, repair, or replacement.

Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction (ICLR)

The insurance industry established the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction (ICLR) in 1998. It is a coordinated effort of the Canadian home, car and business insurance community, the University of Western Ontario and other partners to reduce – through research and education – the loss of life and property caused by severe weather and earthquakes. ICLR is working to improve Canadians’ capacity to adapt to, anticipate, withstand and recover from natural disasters.

Insurable Interest

An interest which the insured must have in the subject matter of the insurance he buys so that if the event insured against occurs, the insured will suffer a pecuniary loss.


A contract between an insurance company and its customer for a specific period of time. It protects the customer financially against a loss. Insurance is also a mechanism for dispersing risk, because it shares the losses of the few among the many.

Insurance Bureau of Canada (IBC)

The national trade association for the companies that insure the homes, cars and businesses of Canadians. IBC’s membership includes the companies that provide nearly 95% of the home, car and business insurance sold in Canada. IBC works on behalf of member companies to advocate for public policies that create and maintain a healthy insurance marketplace that serves insurers and consumers. IBC facilitates communications and seeks consensus among its members and, when possible, seeks out and implements solutions to common insurance concerns.

Insurance Policy

A written contract of insurance.


The entity (individual or otherwise) whose risk of financial loss from an insured peril is protected by the insurance policy.


The company providing the insurance coverage.

Insuring Clause

Describes the intent of the policy, just what insurance coverage is provided by the policy and in what limits.

Joint and Several Liability Clause

This exists when the situation is such that a creditor in the case can sue any one of the debtors individually, or any, several or all of them, at the creditor’s option. This situation applies to tort-feasors as well as to commercial debtors. Persons who together commit a tort and injure another person generally would be jointly and severally liable for the damage. An injured person has the option of suing the entire group or of suing the one having the greatest financial strength.


An order given by a Court.
A debt resulting from a Court Order.

Common law, being based partly on decisions made in previous cases and quotations from these earlier cases, supports the decision that should be reached in any particular case presently before the Court. These previously decided cases are known as jurisprudence.


An insurance policy which, having reached its expiry date, is not renewed or extended is said to have lapsed.

Legal Expense Insurance

A form of insurance to cover types of legal expenses incurred by individuals; often written on a group basis.

Legal Liability

Liability imposed by law on individuals or corporations to pay for harm done to others. Such law may be the common law, statute law or customs which over a period of time have taken on the same status as law. Legal liability may also be assumed under the terms of a contract.


The person to whom a lease is granted. A lessee of real property is commonly called the “tenant.”


The person granting a lease.


This is a legally enforceable obligation. Liability insurance pays for the damages or losses suffered by others for which the insured person is legally responsible.

Liability Insurance

Insurance which agrees to indemnify the insured for sums he may be required by law to pay to third parties as damages for bodily injury or damage to property.

Liability Limits

The amount or amounts beyond which an insurance company does not protect a person insured for liability coverage. For example, a common liability limit for an auto insurance policy is $1 million. If a policyholder is successfully sued for more than $1 million, the balance of the judgment would be paid out of the policyholder’s pocket.

Liability Loss Exposures

The features of an individual risk to be taken into consideration by an insurer when underwriting a liability cover. These would include location and condition of premises, products made or distributed, work done away from the premises and so on.


A written statement about someone that is personally injurious to that individual.


A charge upon real or personal property as security for some debt or duty. Also, the security interest created by a mortgage. The conditions of an insurance policy require the disclosure to the insurer of any existing lien on the insured property.


A word often used in place of the word “claim.” It refers to the amount an insurer must pay because one of the possibilities of loss insured against under a policy, has happened.

Loss of Use Insurance

Optional coverage purchased to compensate for the loss of use of property, if it cannot be used because of a loss covered by the policy. This is most common in auto insurance. For example, loss of use insurance will have the insurance company pay for the use of a rental car while the insured car is being repaired.


The doing of an unlawful act, e.g., trespass.

Malicious Mischief

Injury to the rights or property of another with a wicked or perverse intent.


A performance by a professional which is deficient in skill from what might ordinarily be expected of a professional person. The standard of performance to which a professional person will be held is necessarily higher than the standard which an unskilled person would be expected to display.

Material Fact

Information about the subject of insurance, insured risk, that, if known, would change the underwriting basis of the insurance, and which could cause the insurer to refuse the application or charge a higher rate.

Material Misrepresentation

When a policyholder or applicant makes a false statement of material (important) fact on the application, he or she has committed a material misrepresentation, which may result in loss of coverage.

Mysterious Disappearance

The disappearance of insured property in an unexplained manner. For example, if a ring is left in a public place and the owner returns later to find the ring gone, it is reasonable to assume that the ring has been stolen. However, there is no direct evidence that this is in fact what happened. This would be an example of mysterious disappearance.

Named Insured

The person in whose name the policy is issued (see Insured or Policyholder). Technically, he or she would be the first party to the contract, the second party being the insurance company that issues the policy.


To fail to do what a reasonable and prudent person would do (or to do what such a person would not do); this can result in property damage, injury or death. No-Fault

This type of automobile insurance provides some compensation for personal injury and death arising out of a motor vehicle accident, with payments made regardless of who caused the loss. However, it does matter who caused the accident; if found to be at fault, a driver may experience an increase in future premiums.


A contract of insurance is based on utmost good faith. An applicant for insurance is required to disclose to the company all material facts which are necessary to underwrite a policy. If the applicant does not disclose all these facts, he/she is guilty of non disclosure and may risk having coverage voided from inception.

Notice of Loss

Notice detailing the losses and the circumstances surrounding how they occurred required by insurance companies immediately after an accident or other loss.

Notice of Termination

The conditions of insurance policies stipulate how a policy may be terminated during its term. For example, a policy may be terminated by the insured at any time or by the insurer who must give the insured a certain number of days’ notice of termination by registered mail or a certain lesser number of days’ written notice of termination personally delivered.


In law, this refers to a class of wrong that arises out of unreasonable, unwarranted or unlawful use by a person of his own property, whether that property be real or personal or from his own improper, indecent or unlawful personal conduct and producing an annoyance, inconvenience, discomfort or hurt to others or to their property that the law would presume a consequential damage. In insurance claims, it is most frequently met as a cause of action, arising from the escape of some obnoxious substance.


Occupancy is the act of holding possession of property or premises. The term implies the use of the building for the purposes described in the policy, and no other. An occupied building has furnishings and/or people in it.


A person, company or other group that owns, has possession of, or has responsibility and control over premises.

Occupiers’ Liability

An individual or organization in possession of property (i.e., the occupier) owes a duty of care to those who come onto the premises. The occupier must take reasonable care to protect others from harm that might result from programs on the premises or at the hands of a third party on the premises. For example, an occupier should ensure that the building is safe by shoveling sidewalks in the winter.


An event that results in an insured loss. In some lines of insurance, such as liability, an occurrence is not necessarily an accident (something sudden or unexpected); it can result from continuous or repeated exposure to a risk. Nonetheless, an occurrence results in bodily injury or property damage that was neither expected nor intended by the insured.

P&C Insurance

See Property and Casualty insurance.

Package Policy

Any insurance policy which covers two or more lines or types of insurance in the same policy.

Pain and Suffering

A non-economic loss for which recovery may be available against the wrongdoer in a lawsuit.

Per Annum

For each year.

Per Capita

Per head or per person.


This is the cause of loss or damage. A homeowner’s policy, for example, insures against perils like windstorms, fire and theft.

Period of Indemnity

Used in business interruption and disability insurance to define the length of time for which indemnity is payable.


Giving false evidence or information while under oath.

Personal Effects/Property Floater

Coverage for personal property, anywhere it may be in the world. Typically, this type of floater is issued in one of two forms, all-risk (or broad) or specified perils.

Personal Injury

An injury, other than physical, arising out of false arrest or detention, malicious prosecution, wrongful entry or eviction, libel or slander, or violation of a person’s right to privacy.

Personal Injury Liability

Injury other than bodily injury arising out of defined causes which usually include false arrest or detention, malicious prosecution, wrongful entry or eviction, libel or slander or violation of a person’s right to privacy other than in the course of advertising, broadcasting, television, publishing. Personal Lines Insurance.

Home or auto insurance for individuals, as distinguished from commercial lines insurance for businesses.

Personal Property

Possessions owned by an individual other than real estate or buildings (not attached to the land). Often used to refer to property in a Homeowner’s policy. Plaintiff.

The person who initiates a lawsuit. Also called a claimant.


Legally binding contract effecting insurance or certificates thereof, including all clauses, riders, endorsements and renewals.

Policy Conditions

Provisions which state the rights and duties of the insured or insurer.

Policy Expiration Date

The date when an insurance policy expires. This date can be found on the current Declaration (or “Dec”) page, insurance identification card, or recent cancellation notice.

Policy Fee

An additional charge placed on the initial premium to reflect the cost of issuing a policy, establishing records and other expenses.

Policy Limit

The maximum amount an insurer will pay under a policy, either overall or under a particular coverage.

Policy Period

Duration of policy, most often one year in property/casualty insurance.

Professional Liability Insurance

Protects professionals against liability for damages and cost of defense based upon his/her alleged or real professional errors and omissions or mistakes, e.g., architects, engineers, medical malpractice, attorneys.

Pro Rata Cancellation

Cancellation of an insurance policy or bond with the return premium credit being the full proportion of premium for the unexpired term of the policy.


The adjustment of policy benefits due to a change of exposure or existence of “other insurance.”


Statements contained in an insurance policy which explain the benefits, conditions and other features of the insurance contract.

Proximate Cause

Cause of loss or damage. Unbroken chain of cause and effect between the occurrence of an insured peril and damage to property.


An estimate of the cost of insurance, based on information supplied to the insurance company.


The amount, established or reviewed by government, used to calculate premiums to be paid on an auto insurance policy.

Registered Insurance Brokers of Ontario (RIBO)

Legislation in Ontario requires the licensing and self regulation of all brokers in the province selling insurance to the public.

(Not to be confused with agents that represent a specific company.)


The reactivation of suspended or cancelled insurance.


Insurance purchased by an insurance company from another insurance company (reinsurer) to provide it protection against large losses on cases it has already insured. Essentially, insurance for insurance companies.


A chance of loss or injury for which an insurance claim may be submitted. For a risk to be insurable, related events that could result in a claim must be unexpected (see Accident and Occurrence). For example, the possibility that a visitor to a policyholder’s home will injure himself or herself by falling on the steps is an insurable risk, because such a fall would be unexpected. Expected losses, such as the gradual wearing-out of clothes or the rotting of fruit, are not insurable risks.

Risk Manager (Risk Management)

Organizations, especially larger entities, have recognized the need to better understand their exposures and means of covering their exposures. A risk manager will determine all of a company’s exposures, determine if insurance or self insurance is appropriate, and coordinate loss control.


On paying for a total loss of property, an insurance company takes title to what remains of or what is recovered of the property. This is a right of salvage. Schedule of Insurance

A list of items individually covered by a policy, e.g., a list of jewels under a jewellery floater, a list of cars insured under one automobile policy or a list of buildings insured against fire.

Schedule of Property

A statement accompanying a policy specifying the various items to be insured and the corresponding amounts applying to each item. The schedule date, when required, must be before or coincident with the issue of the policy, never afterwards.

Scheduled Property Floater

An inland marine form of policy specifically insuring various individual items. Articles of unusual value, provided they are movable, may normally be written this way and insured against many hazards, often against “all risks.”

Short Rate Cancellation

The cancellation by the insured of a policy before its natural expiration; the insurer pays a return premium which is less than the proportionate part that remains unearned.


The oral utterance or spreading of falsehood harmful to another’s reputation. Libel is written; slander is spoken.

Smoke Damage

Essentially, the devaluation by smoke, not fire, of merchandise and property. Such damage is covered by the fire policy.

Social Host Liability (Liquor Liability)

Potential liability for bodily injury or property damage arising out of the negligent serving or distribution of alcohol by a non-business enterprise (i.e. homeowner).

Special Damages

Actual loss from the natural, not the necessary, consequences of the subject of complaint; e.g., specific payments for medical bills or car repairs. In third party claims, it means the damages that may be proved with documents.

Standard of Care The degree or level of service, attention, care and protection that a person owes another person according to the law (see also Duty of care).


Once a company has paid a loss for which someone other than the policyholder is responsible, it may have the right to recover this loss from the guilty party. This right is called subrogation.


The party which assumes the rights of another by subrogation.


The party whose rights are assigned to another by subrogation.

Substandard Insurance

Insurance for those persons who do not qualify for insurance at standard rates or terms.


A legal proceeding brought by one person against another.


The legal serving of notice of a lawsuit that has been filed.


The period of time from the inception to the termination of an insurance policy or bond.

Third Party

A claimant under a liability policy, so called because he is not one of the two parties (insured and insurer) who has entered into the insurance contract which pays his claim.

Third-Party Liability (Auto) Insurance

Covers an insured if his or her car injures someone else or damages property and he or she is held legally responsible. In some parts of the country, this is referred to as “Section A.” Title The right to ownership of property. The owner of real property having just possession of his property.

Title Insurance

Insurance affording protection from loss arising out of a defect in a real estate title.

Total Loss

Loss of all the insured property. Also a loss involving the maximum amount for which a policy is liable.


An illegal act against another person’s rights or property.

Umbrella Policy

A special form of liability policy designed to protect the insured for certain unknown contingencies over and above the normal coverages and to provide excess insurance.

Underinsured Motorist Coverage

A form of insurance that pays for the bodily injury or property damage caused by the owner or operator of an inadequately insured automobile.


An underwriter is an employee of an insurance company who looks at an insurance application and decides whether or not the insurance company can or should provide the applicant with insurance, based on the risk that person presents.

Underwriting Profit or Loss

The amount of money that an insurance company gains or loses as a result of its insurance operations. It excludes investment transactions and income taxes.

Underwriting Rules

The rules used by insurance companies to assess the risk they are taking on by insuring a particular customer. These rules are set individually by insurance companies.


Where the premises contain contents but no human beings, such persons being temporarily away from the premises, on vacation for example, the premises are said to be unoccupied. This is distinguishable from Vacant in that in vacancy, the contents have been moved out leaving nothing but the building.

Vehicle identification number (VIN)

This is the number usually found on the dashboard of a vehicle on the driver’s side, and is usually listed on the vehicle registration and title. The VIN is a combination of letters and numbers 17 characters in length that can be used to identify the make, model, and year of a car.

Vicarious Liability

Liability imposed upon a person even though not a party to a particular occurrence, e.g., the owner of a motor vehicle is vicariously responsible for injuries even though he is not driving the car at the time of the occurrence.


Invalid, not legally binding.

An insurance contract that is prohibited by law and thus cannot be held to be a valid contract.


The intentional relinquishment of a known right. A waiver under a policy is required to be clearly expressed and in writing.

Waiver of Co-insurance

A fire insurance contract clause that states that co insurance does not apply unless the amount of loss exceeds a certain amount.


A statement by the policyholder that certain conditions of the insured risk exist or will be met. If found to be false, it provides the basis for voidance of the policy.

Water Damage Clause

A portion of the policy affording coverage for certain specific causes of water damage.

Without Prejudice

An action taken during claims negotiations designated as “without prejudice” is intended to be without detriment to the existing rights of the parties.

Utmost Good Faith

A phrase in a legal document calling for the highest standards of integrity on the part of the insured and the insurer.